بحث انجليزي لللصف الثاني عشر ويتكلم عن Improve Your Memory

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    default بحث انجليزي لللصف الثاني عشر ويتكلم عن Improve Your Memory

    مُساهمة من طرف ليتني دمعه على خدك.. في الثلاثاء فبراير 26, 2008 1:52 am

    Introduction
    You can only hold 7 items in short-term memory at once without "losing" some information . This is why it's helpful to make a list before shopping for the week's groceries .
    If our brains were computers , we'd simply add a chip to upgrade our memory . Because the human brain is a bit more complex than even the most advanced machine, upgrading human memory requires slightly more effort. There are a number of steps you can take to enhance your retrieval capacity. First, however, it's helpful to understand how we remember .



    *******
    At its simplest level , memory is a mental activity for recalling information that has been learned or experienced . It involves receiving , retaining and retrieving data - much like our computers .
    • Registration. The brain's cerebral cortex registers nerve messages from our eyes , ears , and touch sensors. This stimulus is held for a fraction of a second in the "sensory memory." But unless you pay attention to the image for approximately eight uninterrupted seconds to encode it into short-term memory, it will be lost . The slightest interference at this stage will wipe the newly acquired information from our consciousness . This may be one reason teachers are always exhorting students to "Pay attention!"
    • Retention Short-term memory (STM) is the brain's system for remembering information that is " in use " It's similar to the " working memory " on a computer. STM allows you to perform activities such as calling a phone number you've just looked up . But , as with computers , STM doesn't reliably hold on to information , and there is no mental "save" function we can click on while working . It also has limited storage capacity - seven items , plus or minus two . If STM tries to acquire more items than it can handle , the middle items will often be displaced . This is why it's helpful to make a shopping list for the week's groceries .
    When items that have been registered and retained in STM move into long-term memory (LTM), it's akin to putting the information on your computer's hard drive. LTM has unlimited capacity to retain information over an extended period of time .
    • Retrieval Finding information now becomes the issue . Is the memory you want in an easily accessible "folder" on your brain's hard drive , or randomly scattered in files all over your mental "desktop?"
    When something is on the tip of your tongue and you can't quite get it, that's a retrieval problem. It means you paid attention—you registered it, you retained it, you did something with it, but you can't quite get it out. Retrieval difficulty can be frustrating. It is important to remember that you have a database full of information, and your brain may have to search through many decades of storage to find the relevant information .
    Some forms of memory do appear to decline with age. As we grow older, there is a concomitant decrease in blood flow to the brain, and less efficient oxygen and protein $$$$bolism. Why does this result in memory problems ?
    One hypothesis is that older adults fail to encode environmental cues as easily as younger adults—that is, their brains have more difficulty placing information in an appropriate con$$$$. This is similar to the retrieval hypothesis, which states that older adults have greater difficulty reinstating the circumstances in which the learning took place. This "source forgetting" is similar to localized amnesia.
    However, there does not appear to be a decline in semantic memory or implicit memory (the latter is often related to memory for skills such as driving or playing an instrument, for example.) While these tasks may be more difficult to perform than they once were, the memory of how to do them is intact. In fact, older adults may use implicit memory more efficiently in order to compensate for slowing motor responses.
    Finally, there are memory problems that are directly related to illness, injury, and emotional causes, such as:
    • Alzheimer's Disease (which affects 45 percent of people over age 85),
    • stroke,
    • post-traumatic stress syndrome,
    • neurochemical damage.
    "Wearing your heart on your sleeve," as the expression goes, may actually help your memory, according to research. A study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology found that participants who consciously suppressed their emotions had poorer recall of information than those who allowed themselves to react to emotionally stimulating films. Those who viewed the films with neutral detachment were able to remember the material easily.
    The research suggests that hiding your emotions requires continuous self-monitoring, tapping mental resources that are critical in forming memories. But defusing emotions at the outset appears to help you pay closer attention.
    By the same token, what you think about your memory affects your ability to remember. If you tell yourself you have a bad memory, such a statement :
    • produces distracting emotions,
    • lowers your expectations for success, and
    • decreases your motivation to use methods that can help you build better memory skills .
    It's important to become aware of how what you think leads to an emotional state of mind that can interfere with—or enhance—your memory. When you say to yourself, "I'll never remember this," you are sending your brain feelings of worthlessness and fear, hampering your ability to remember. By the same token, positive mental feedback sets up an expectation of success .
    Our brains evolved to code and interpret complex stimuli into sophisticated models of the world we live in, so it makes sense to feed our minds as diverse a set of data as possible. Memory makes use of various "triggers," known as mnemonics. These include :
    • images
    • colors
    • structures
    • sounds
    • smells • tastes
    • touch
    • positions
    • emotions
    • language
    To make your mnemonics most valuable :
    • Use positive, pleasant images. The brain often blocks out unpleasant ones .
    • Use vivid, colorful, sense-laden images — these are easier to remember than drab ones.
    • Use all your senses to code information or dress up an image. Remember that your mnemonic can contain sounds, smells, tastes, touch, movements and feelings as well as pictures.
    • Give your image three dimensions, movement and space to make it more vivid. You can use movement either to maintain the flow of association, or to help you to remember actions.
    • Exaggerate the size of important parts of the image.
    • Use humor! Make up $$$$s using facts and figures you need to recall. Funny or peculiar things are easier to remember than pedestrian ones.
    • Make up rhymes such as the one we all learned in elementary school, "30 days hath September…"
    • Symbols (red traffic lights, pointing fingers, road signs, etc.) can code complex messages quickly and effectively.
    Once you've mastered mnemonics, the following guidelines can help improve your memory at any age :
    1. Attention and Intention. Pay attention to what you're learning, and decide to remember it. We learn and retain information best when we have a strong motivation for committing the material to memory.
    2. Relate to what you know. How does the new information relate to concepts with which you're familiar? Decide whether to emphasize memory devices, visualization, or reciting. Storage seems to increase if we pronounce the names of the items out loud—especially if they are grouped rhythmically. Grouping items into threes or fours also seems to aid recall.
    3. Become the teacher. Grasp the basic idea and explain it to someone else in your own words.
    4. Organize. Make notes, and remember that 7 items is the maximum your short-term memory can hold at one time. Categories with 7 or fewer items will work best.
    5. Visualize. Your brain thinks in $$$$ words and pictures, so give it $$$$: diagrams and charts, as well as pictures of what you need to know, such as a log cabin with Lincoln's birth date above the door.
    6. Talk to yourself. Reciting as you read and reviewing notes out loud increases attention and motivation, and creates a stronger neural trace of memory by utilizing more senses.
    7. ASAP review. If you go over what you've learned for just five minutes immediately after you've learned it, your retention will be far higher than if you skip this valuable step.
    Can I exercise my brain the way I exercise my body?
    Yes! Imagine intentionally entering your house with your eyes closed, feeling your way into the hall. Or totally rearranging your office furniture and desktop. These are just a few of the ways you can give your brain a healthy workout and keep your neural pathways well toned.
    "Neurobic" exercises use your five physical senses and your emotional sense in unexpected ways that shake up your everyday routines. To be neurobic, a brain exercise should do one or more of the following :
    • Involve one or more of your senses in a novel way. Brush your teeth with the hand you don't normally use, eat a meal with your family in silence, take a shower with your eyes closed.
    • Engage your attention. Do something unusual or surprising to evoke strong basic emotions, such as taking your child to work for the day or going white-water rafting.
    • Break routine in a new way. Take a completely new route to work. Shop at a farmer's market instead of the grocery store.
    Normally, our brains use unconscious "maps" created from past experience to guide our daily activities. By engaging new or little used mental pathways, you strengthen synapses between nerve cells and produce more brain growth molecules, all of which revive mental acuity and slow mental aging. The benefit is a fit and flexible mind ready to meet any mental challenge, whether it be remembering a name or where you put your car keys, mastering a new computer program or staying creative in your work. Plus, you'll have some interesting new activities to remember!
    What you eat makes a definite difference in your ability to process and recall information. Antioxidants, for example, touted for their overall immune-boosting properties, are also key brain boosters, because they improve the flow of oxygen through the body by fighting free radicals. Eating foods that are rich in fiber and nutrients also helps you resist and combat disease that can affect your memory.
    Some of the best Vitamin C-rich, memory-enhancing fruits and vegetables include :
    • cantaloupe
    • black currants
    • blueberries • sweet potatoes
    • asparagus
    • kale
    Add red foods to your diet, which not only contain beta-carotene (a precursor of Vitamin A) but also stimulate, strengthen and increase body temperature and circulation, which increases energy. Red foods affect your muscles, adrenal glands, bladder, lower limbs, spine and reproductive center, making them ideal for combating fatigue, fever, colds, etc. Psychologically, red foods ease depression, promoting a positive attitude, which aids memory.
    Key red foods include :
    • watermelon
    • strawberries
    • cherries • tomatoes
    • red cabbage
    • radishes
    Good oils, such as olive and flax, also appear to buffer our brain (which is composed of fat) against memory loss. B vitamins are similarly critical. For a complete guide to eating well throughout life,
    What are some other tools and techniques I can use to help me remember ?
    1. Association. Picture a microphone to remember the name "Mike," or a cross for Chris (criss-cross). You can also try associating the information with a smell (which our brains do instinctively when a scent is present.) After you develop the habit, it will be a snap (and fun!) to remember new information this way.
    2. "Peg" words. This works well for everything from playing cards to memorizing countries and capitals. You "peg" a certain word or image to the material you want to recall, and the image itself becomes your mnemonic.
    3. Acronyms. This is a well-loved way for memorizing lists. We're all familiar with ROY G. BIV for the colors of the rainbow (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet). The same technique will work for any list you need to remember. Be creative!
    4. Singing. Make up a tune for the information, or sing the words you need to remember to music you know and love. If it rhymes, so much the better.
    Finally, remember that every day, people successfully use the following memory enhancers to help them recall what they need to know:
    • alarm clocks and egg timers
    • day planners
    • Post-it notes
    • refrigerator notes
    • answering machines
    • assistants
    Student's Point of view :
    As for my personal opinion , our memory and brain ability fade by the time , so there are several methods we have to follow to enhance this valuable bless . Eating a balanced diet , exercise and relaxation are necessary for keeping $$$$$ minds .

    References and resources

    Guide to Preventing or Reducing Age-Related Memory LossFive Tools for Improving Your MemoryTips for Improving Memory: AcronymsLearning Assistance Center: Tips for Improving Memory
    www.le.ac.uk/politics/admissions/improve the memroy.html
    www.susqu.edu/study /resources.htm
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    default رد: بحث انجليزي لللصف الثاني عشر ويتكلم عن Improve Your Memory

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